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Now medical protective masks and protective clothing have become very scarce materials.


Classification and scope of medical protective clothing

 

1. According to usage

 

Divided according to usage and use: daily work clothes, surgical clothes, isolation clothes and protective clothes. Daily work clothes refer to the daily work of medical staff, also known as white coats. Surgical gown refers to the clothing specially designed for indoor wear during surgery. Isolation gown refers to the clothing worn by medical staff in contact with patients, family members visiting patients and other occasions. Protective clothing refers to medical emergency, infectious diseases where employees' clothing enters the area, such as special areas worn in electromagnetic radiation areas.

 

2. According to the service life

 

According to the service life, medical protective clothing can be divided into disposable protective clothing and reusable protective clothing. According to the standard of medical disposable protective clothing, Chinese national standard: GB19082-2009. After disinfection, use disposable protective clothing to discard after cleaning to avoid cross-infection. However, disposable materials are easy to cause environmental pollution. Usually, high-protective surgical gowns and isolation gowns are required. Reusable measures such as washing and high-temperature sterilization are required, but the protective performance is usually poor after passing, and a lot of labor and water costs will be added during the cleaning and disinfection process.

 

3. According to the material

 

According to different processing and production techniques of related materials, medical chemical protective clothing is divided into woven and non-woven protective clothing. Woven materials are mainly used for processing reusable medical protective clothing, including traditional woven fabrics, high-density fabrics, coated fabrics and laminated fabrics. Traditional woven fabrics are mainly composed of synthetic fibers such as cotton fiber or polyester and cotton blended yarn Processed, it has good comfort. Mainly used for daily work clothes, high-density fabrics are made of high-count cotton yarn or other ultra-fine synthetic fiber filaments, the yarn gap is very small, due to the capillary effect of the fiber, it is moisture-permeable, and then waterproofed by fluorocarbon, silicone, etc. The agent has a certain resistance to liquid permeability after treatment. It is mainly used for surgical clothes materials that need better waterproof effect. The design of the coating and laminated fabric is to improve the permeability resistance of the material, and it is used to use protective clothing materials that require environmental protection. Coated fabrics are treated with a coating, and the surface is closed with a coating agent, which is impermeable. The microporous structure formed by the hydrophilic groups in the coating or special methods ensures the moisture permeability of the fabric. Laminated fabric refers to a composite material of a fabric with a special layer of film (such as microporous film, polyurethane permeable film, etc.). Using lamination process, such as PTFE super waterproof and moisture-permeable composite fabric.

 

Because the pore diameter of the main membrane of the fabric is much smaller than the diameter of the water droplets, it can prevent the penetration of blood, body fluids, etc. The porosity of the micropores is higher than the diameter of the water vapor molecules, and the water vapor molecules can pass freely, so the air permeability is better. The nonwoven fabric substrate of the protective clothing is disposable, using more spunbond nonwoven fabric, spunlace nonwoven fabric, SMS (spunbond – meltblown – spunbond) composite nonwoven fabric, flash spunbond nonwoven fabric And laminates. Typically, nonwovens have better protection than mechanism-based material protective clothing.




In addition to these, there is a special medical protective clothing, which can be developed into three categories, and its applicable research scope is as follows:

 

1. Chemical protective clothing

 

Chemical protective clothing refers to protective clothing worn to protect yourself from hazardous chemicals or corrosive substances when handling hazardous chemicals. In addition to the requirements of chemical resistant materials for chemical resistance, there are also stricter requirements for the sealing and sewing structure of clothing.


2. Electromagnetic radiation protective clothing

 

By injecting fine conductive fiber electromagnetic radiation protective clothing into the fabric material, static electricity is not generated in the protective clothing in the range of 100 kHz to 300 GHz of the protective clothing to shield the electromagnetic waves. Mainly used for the business group in the electronic medical equipment hospital system.

 

3. Nuclear and radiation protective clothing

 

Used in nuclear radiation working environment (small dose, large range of ionization produces radiation, mainly based on α, β ray technology), to prevent the occurrence of radioactive aerosols and dust on the human body. It has safety protection and radioactive aerosol, protecting more than 150 kinds of these toxic and corrosive gases, liquids and solids. The potential radioactive material particles and liquids of the protection system can invade our body, 100percent blocking particles in the drying process of more than 0.2μm, etc. Features.



Medical protective clothing grade

 

China's protective clothing classification standard is the People's Republic of China pharmaceutical industry standard YY/T 1499-2016 "liquid barrier performance and classification of medical protective clothing", which divides medical protective clothing into 4 levels in total, the higher the level, the better the protective performance .

 

According to the different requirements of the protection level, the non-woven fabric used is also different from the film. The polyethylene breathable membrane/nonwoven composite material has an excellent effect on blocking the penetration of bacterial particles and liquid penetration, and the feel can be adjusted by changing the softness of the composite fabric.

 

It has strong tensile strength, good breathability, and greatly improves comfort. It can withstand disinfection, non-toxic ingredients, and weighs 60~100g/m2. It has good cost performance and is made of medical disposable protection. The clothing can protect medical personnel from pollution sources, overcome cross infection, and play an effective protective role.

 

When there is not enough medical protective clothing, use protective clothing for emergency medical supplies. The protective clothing for emergency medical materials and materials shall comply with the EN14126 standard of China's EU medical protective clothing (including liquid barrier technology level above 2) and obtain an EU CE certification.

 

The liquid has a compact protective clothing (type 3, conforming to the EN14605 standard), a spray dense protective clothing (type 4, conforming to the EN14605 standard), and a solid particulate protective clothing (type 5, conforming to the ISO13982-1&2 standard). Emergency medical equipment and material protective clothing are only used for social isolation and observation of wards (rooms) and isolation wards (rooms).

 

It cannot be directly used for data isolation treatment in intensive care areas (rooms) and other places where strict requirements for microbiological analysis indicators are passed. All local economic organizations, environmental health services and health education departments are required to provide guidance to our hospitals, disease control centers and other units to standardize the use of emergency medical supplies and protective clothing for enterprises to reasonably choose their use.

 

Medical protective clothing related standards

 

In China, the corresponding standard for medical protective clothing is the National Standard GB19082-2009 <Technical Requirements for Medical Disposable Protective Clothing>. This standard not only stipulates the appearance of protective clothing, but also makes strict regulations on the liquid barrier function, filtration performance, microbiological index, residual amount of ethylene oxide, taking performance and comfort of protective clothing.

 

China's protective clothing classification standard is the People's Republic of China pharmaceutical industry standard YY/T 1499-2016 "liquid barrier performance and classification of medical protective clothing", which divides medical protective clothing into 4 levels in total, the higher the level, the better the protective performance .

 

Internationally, the European Union National Standard EN14126-2003 "Protective Clothing-Performance Requirements and Technical Test Research Methods for Protective Clothing against Infectious Sources" divides protective clothing into 6 categories. Biochemical protective clothing can be marked with the letter "B" .

 

It can be used to improve the safety protection of medical staff; American enterprise standard NFPA1999:2018 "Protective clothing and equipment for emergency treatment of medical service actions" analyzes the development of protective clothing and equipment. Detailed design requirements are not provided, and there is no data on the time of medical protective clothing. Grading.

 

Qualification of medical protective clothing also requires testing by a testing agency. The medical protective clothing testing agencies that are qualified for the entire project are: Beijing Medical Device Inspection Institute, Anhui Food and Drug Inspection Institute, Hubei Medical Device Quality Supervision and Inspection Institute, China Food and Drug Inspection Institute (China National Institute of Drug Inspection), Jinan Medical Device Quality Supervision and Inspection Center of the State Food and Drug Administration.

 

The current national standard for the production of medical protective clothing using ethylene oxide sterilization takes 7-14 days. However, it has been verified that the sterilization time can be controlled within 1 day, but some people think that the effect of radiation sterilization may have the structural strength of the protective clothing. Within one month, the radiation disposable sterilization set for the medical disposable protective clothing due date "Emergency level".